Question: I just stained a concrete floor in a new restaurant using acid stain. The concrete was power-troweled and had a very smooth, hard, dense finish. We mopped the floor with soap and water, did a clean-water rinse and let it dry overnight. We then came back the next morning, protected the walls and sprayed the stain using a pump-up sprayer. We let the stain sit all day and came back eight hours later. The restaurant owner loved the color and the way it looked.
We then washed the floor with soap and water and removed almost all of the color. The floor now looks spotty and ugly. Why did all the color come off, and what can I do to make it look like it did before I cleaned the floor?
There are a few different things going on that led to the floor looking spotty and unacceptable. The first red flag is that there is no mention of any sample being completed prior to the project start. I, along with most every stain manufacturer, strongly recommend sampling on all stain jobs, especially on commercial projects.
And when I talk about samples, I mean a sample placed in an inconspicuous place on the actual floor that will be stained that includes all the steps that will be completed on the actual project, including sealer and wax. These types of mock-up samples are frequently placed in a closet or bathroom, or in an area where furniture or other flooring will be installed. Too often I see samples created on boards or concrete chips that have no relevance to the concrete floor that will be stained. Or the mock-up or sample is not sealed, which can significantly change the look and color of the final product.
It is important to note that samples are not just about picking a color. You as the installer should be paying close attention during the sample process to make sure the stain is taking properly, the colors are developing and you don’t have any red-flag issues like fish-eyeing or orange-peel effect that indicate contamination in the concrete.
I have worked with some installers who take the time and walk the area to be stained, spraying the entire floor with water looking for contamination or trouble spots. Today’s concrete often contains fly ash and other pozzolans and chemical admixtures. While these can be good for concrete strength, durability, finish and cost, they can often retard the stain’s ability to penetrate or develop the proper color. A good rule of thumb is that if you have trouble getting plain water to absorb into concrete, chances are you will have trouble getting a stain to absorb. It is a lot easier and cheaper to discover a concrete issue by spraying water before you’ve started the job than after you have sprayed the floor with stain.
You mentioned in your question that the floor had a “very smooth, hard, dense finish.” This should have been an immediate warning sign that the concrete was probably going to require additional preparation. I am always surprised at how many installers don’t think that floors that are going to be acid-stained require much surface preparation. In some cases they don’t, but in many situations, especially on commercial flooring where the concrete is machine-finished, you do. The surface preparation you described in your question — “We mopped the floor with soap and water, did a clean-water rinse and let it dry overnight” — falls a bit short, especially on a hard, dense floor. In many cases a floor with a machine finish will require sanding or a mild acid etch to break the surface tension of the concrete. If you do use acid to etch concrete prior to acid staining, I recommend using a diluted phosphoric acid detergent to treat the floor.
In this situation, the stain looked good before it was cleaned because all the mineral salts (which are what react with the concrete to produce the color) are lying on the surface as residue. The concrete was both too dense and hard or had some type of contamination that kept the stain from penetrating and reacting.
Always remember that there is a process by which all stains must go through to work properly. First, the surface must be porous enough for the stain to break the surface and get inside. The second is penetration, where the stain migrates into the surface paste of the concrete. The third is reaction and/or adhesion. This is the ability of the stain to react with cement-based material to develop its color. If any of these three steps is missing or reduced, the process slows down or stops, resulting in poor stain color development. Whenever I troubleshoot a stain issue, I always look at porosity, penetration and adhesion/reaction. (Similar process can be noted for dyes and sealers, too.)
In regard to fixing this stained floor, I would start by cleaning off the residue from the first staining attempt. I would then prepare the surface by either sanding with a walk-behind and pad or lightly etching with a diluted phosphoric acid detergent. Once that is complete, stain the floor, and consider using brooms to work the stain into the concrete to promote better penetration and reaction. The last step would be to properly neutralize and clean the floor to get it ready for the sealer.
I strongly recommend sampling this process to dial in the right steps and to make sure you will obtain the results you are looking for.